Methane Digesters
For Fuel Gas and Fertilizer

With Complete Instructions For Two Working Models

by L. John Fry

12 References

1. Anderson, L. 1972. Energy Potential from Organic Wastes: A Review of the Quantities and Sources. Bureau of Mines Information Circular 8549, U.S. Dept. Interior.

2. Perelman, M. 1973. Efficiency in Agriculture: The Economics of Energy. In Radical Agriculture. R. Merrill (ed.), Harper & Row (In press).

3. Acharya, C. 1958. Preparation of Fuel Gas and Manure by Anaerobic Fermentation of Organic Materials. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, ICAR Research Series No. 15, 58 pp, New Delhi.

4. Acharya, C. N. 1952. Organic Manures. Indian Council Agriculture Research. Research Revision Series, Bulletin 2, New Delhi.

5. Singh, Ram Bux. 1971. Bio-Gas Plant. Gobor Gas Research Station. Ajitman, Etawah (U.P.) India.

6. Singh, Ram Bux. 1971. Some Experiments with Bio-Gas. Gobor Gas Research Station, Ajitmal, Etawah (U.P.) India.

7. Imhoff, K. & G. Fair. 1956. Sewage Treatment (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

8. Imhoff, K., W. Muller & D. Thistlethwayle. 1971. Disposal of Sewage and other Water-Borne Wastes. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich.

9. Anderson, M. S. 1955. Sewage Sludge for Soil Improvement. USDA Circular No. 972. Sup. Doc. Washington D. C. 0.25.

10. Law, James P. 1968. Agricultural Utilization of Sewage Effluent and Sludge. Annotated Bibliography Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, U.S. Dept. Inter. (Super. Docum. - $0.45).

11. Greeley, S. and C. R. Velzy. 1936. Operation of Sludge Gas Engines. Sewage Works Journal 8(1): 57-62.

12. Jeris, J. & P. McCarty. 1965. The Biochemistry of Methane Fermentation Using C14 Traces. Journal Water Poll. Control Fed., 37(2): 178-192.

13. Boswell, A. M. 1947. Microbiology and Theory of Anaerobic Digestion. Sewage Works Journal 19:28.

14. Barker, H. 1956. Bacterial Fermentations. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

15. Gotaas, H. 1956. Composting: Sanitary Disposal and Reclamation of Organic Wastes. World Health Organization, Geneva.

16. American Public Health Association. 1960. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 11 ed. New York.

17. Dugan, Gordon L. et. al. 1970. Photosynthetic Reclamation of Agricultural Solid & Liquid Wastes. Sanitary Engineering Research Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley SERL Report no. 70-1.

18. Schnabel, C. F. 1973. Grass. Acres: A Voice Eco-Agriculture, March 1973. Box 1456, Kansas City, Mo. (A monthly newspaper of high quality.)

19. Rubins, E. and F. Bear. 1942. Carbon-nitrogen Ratios in Organic Fertilizer Materials in Relation to the Availability of their Nitrogen. Soil Sci. 54:411-423.

20. Sanders, F. A. & D. Bloodgood. 1965. The Effect of Nitrogen to Carbon Ratio on Anaerobic Decomposition. J. Wat. Pollut. Control Fed. 37:1741.

21. Waksman, S. 1938. Humus: Origin, Chemical Composition and Importance in Nature. Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore.

22. Management of Farm Animal Wastes. 1966. Proc. National Symposium on animal waste management. May 5-7, 1966. East Lansing Mich. From: American Society of Agricultural Engineers. St. Joseph, Mich. 49085 ($5.00)

23. Hart, Samuel. 1960. Sludge Digestion Tests of Livestock Manures. Dept. Agr. Engr. Univ. of Calif. Davis. Offprint manuscript.

24. Hart, S. 1963. Fowl Fecal Facts: National Symposium on Poultry Foul Wastes, Lincoln American Society Agricultural Engineers, University of Nebraska.

25. Heck, A. 1931. The Availability of the Nitrogen in Farm Manure under Field Conditions. Soil Sci. 31: 467:481.

26. Taiganides, Eliseos P. 1963. Characteristics and Treatment of Wastes from a Confinement Hog Production Unit. PhD dissertation, Iowa State Univ. Science and Technology, Agricultural Engineering. Available from University Micro-film Inc. Ann Arbor, Mich. #63-5200, 177 pp.

27. Taiganides, E. P. 1963. Anaerobic Digestion of Poultry Manure. World's Poultry Science Journal 19(4).

28. Taiganides, E. P., E. Baumann, H. Johnson, T. Hazen. Anaerobic Digestion of Hog Wastes. Journal Agricultural Engin. Research 8(4).

29. Papandos, S. & B. Brown. 1950. Poultry Manure. Connecticut Agric. Exper. Station Bulletin 272.

30. Mishihara, S. 1935. Digestion of Human Fecal Matter. Sewage Works Journal. 7(5): 798-809.

31. Salter, R. M. and Schollenberger, C. J. 1939. Farm Manure. Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 605.

32. Sobel, A. 1966. Physical Properties of Annual Manures Associated with Handing, In "Management of Farm Animal Wastes;" Proceedings National Symposium on Animal Waste Management.

33. Anderson, S. 1957. Farm Manure. U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Yearbook of Agric. 1957: 229-257.

34. Eby, H. 1961. Design Criteria for Manure Lagoons. Amer. Society of Agricult. Engineers. Paper 61-935.

35. Loehr, R. 1968. Pollution Implications of Animal Wastes. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, Kerr Water Research Center, Ada, Okla, July 1968.

36. Miner, J. R. 1971. Farm Animal-Waste Management. Iowa State Univ. of Sci. & Technol. Agricultural and Home Economics Expt. Station, Ames, Iowa, Special Rept. 67, May 1971.

37. Taiganides, E. & T. Hazen. 1966. Properties of Farm Animal Excreta. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Engin. 9(3)374-376.

38. Hazen, T. & D. Mangold. 1960. Functional and Basic Requirements of Swine Housing. Agricultural Engineering. 41:585-590.

39. British Oil & Cake Mills Ltd. 1964. Poultry Manure and its Disposal. Poultry Advisory Board, Albion Wharf, Erith, Kent, England.

40. Klein, S. 1972. Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Wastes. Compost Science Jour..Feb. 1972.

41. Laura,.R. & M. Idnai. 1971. Increased Production of Biogas from Cowdung by Adding Other Agricultural Waste Materials. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 22:164-167.

42. Fry, J. 1961. Manure Smell Furnishes Farmstead's Power Needs. National Hog Farmer 6:3.

43. Patel, J. 1951. Digestion of Waste Organic Matter and Organic Fertilizer and a New Economic Apparatus for Small Scale Digestion. Poona Agricultural College Magazine (India), 42(3): 150-159.

44. Fry, J. 1960. Power and Electric Light from Pig Manure. Farm and Country. April, 1960. London.

45. Mother Earth News. 1972. Plowboy Interview with Ram Bux Singh. No. 18. Madison, Ohio.

46. King, F. H. 1911. Farmers of Forty Centuries: Permanent Agriculture in China, Korea and Japan. Jonathan Cape, London.

47. Scott, J. 1952. Health and Agriculture in China. Faber & Faber. London.

48. Hills, L. 1972. The Clivus Toilet —- Sanitation Without Pollution. Compost Science, May/June 1972.

49. Schmidt, F. & Eggersgluess, W. 1954. Gas From Agricultural Waste. Gas Journal 279:2861.

50. Rosenberg, G. 1952. Methane Production from Farm Wastes as a Source of Tractor Fuel. J. Min. Agric. (England) 58:487-94.

51. Imhoff, K. & C. Keefer. 1952. Sludge Gas as Fuel for Motor Vehicles. Wat. Sewage Wks. 99:284.

52. Fry, L. John. 1961a. Farmer Turns Pig Manure Into Horse-Power. Farmer's Weekly. Feb. 22, 1961. Page 16. Bloemfontein, South Africa.

53. Golueke, C. & W. Oswald. 1963. Power from Solar Energy via Algae-Produced Methane. Solar Energy 7(3):86-92.

54. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food. 1964. Nitrogen and Soil Organic Matter. National Agricultural Advisory Service. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

55. Coker, E. 1966. The Value of Liquid Digested Sludge. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge. 67:91-97.

56. New York Dept. Health. 1965. Manual of Instruction for Sewage Treatment Plant Operators. Health Education Service, Albany, N.Y.

57. De Turk, E. 1935. Adaptability of Sewage Sludge as a Fertilizer. Sewage Works Journal. 7(4): 597-610.

58. Poincelot, R. 1972. The Biochemistry and Methodology of Composting. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. Bulletin 727, March 1972. New Haven, Conn. 06504.

59. Wolff, A. & A. Wasserman. 1972. Nitrates, Nitrites, and Nitrosamines. Science, 177(4043): 15-18.

60. Walters, H. 1970. Nitrate in Soil, Plants and Animals. Journal Soil Association, 16(3): 1-22.

61. Law, James P. 1969. Nutrient Removal From Enriched Waste Effluent By The Hydroponic Culture of Cool Season Grasses. Federal Water Quality Administration. Department Interior. From: Super. Doc. Washington, D. C. $0.50.

62. Iby, H. 1966. Evaluating Adaptability of Pasture Grasses to Hydroponic Culture & Their Ability to Act as Chemical Filters. Farm Animal Wastes Symposium May 5-7, 1966. Beltsville, Maryland.

63. McLarney, W. 1973. The Backyard Fish Farm. Organic Gardening and Farming Magazine, Readers Research Project #1, New Alchemy Institute, Rodale Press, Emmaus, Penn.

64. McLarney, W. 1971. An Introduction to Aquaculture on the Organic Farm and Homestead. Organic Gardening and Farming Magazine, Aug. 1971, pgs. 71-76.

65. McLarney, William. 1973. Aquaculture: Toward an Ecological Approach. In: Radical Agriculture, Richard Merrill, ed., Harper & Row, New York (In press).

66. Golueke, C. G. & W. J. Oswald. 1959. Biological Conversion of Light Energy to the Chemical Energy of Methane. Applied Microbiology, 7:219-227.

67. Oswald, W. J. & C. Golueke, 1960. Biological Transformation of Solar Energy. Advances in Applied Microbiology. 2:223-262.

68. Oswald, W. J. & C. G. Goleuke. 1964. Solar Power Via A Botanical Process. Mechanical Engineers, Feb. 1964. pgs 40-43.

69. Golueke, C. & W. Oswald. 1965. Harvesting and Processing Sewage-Grown Planktonic Algae. Journal Water Pollution Control Federation.

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