Sir Albert Howard, C.I.E., M.A.

Formerly Director of the Institute of Plant Industry
Indore, and Agricultural Adviser to States
in Central India and Rajputana

Oxford University Press
New York and London

Copyright 1943 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
First published in England, 1940
First American edition, 1945

To Gabrielle
Who is no more

The Earth, that's Nature's Mother, is her tomb;
What is her burying grave, that is her womb.
Romeo and Juliet.

And Nature, the old nurse, took
The child upon her knee,
Saying: 'Here is a story-book
Thy Father has written for thee.'

'Come, wander with me,' she said,
'Into regions yet untrod;
And read what is still unread
In the manuscripts of God.'

The Fiftieth Birthday of Agassiz.



1. Introduction
Nature's Methods of Soil Management
The Agriculture of the Nations Which Have Passed Away
The Practices of the Orient
The Agricultural Methods of the Occident

Part I
The Part Played by Soil Fertility in Agriculture

2. The Nature of Soil Fertility

3. The Restoration of Fertility

Part II
The Indore Process

4. The Indore Process

The Raw Materials Needed
Pits versus Heaps
Charging the Heaps or Pits
Turning the Compost
The Storage of Humus

5. Practical Applications of the Indore Process

5. Practical Applications of the Indore Process (cont.)

6. Developments of the Indore Process
The Safeguarding of Nitrate Accumulations
The Production of Humus
The Safeguarding of Nitrates Followed by the Manufacture of Humus
The Reform of Green-manuring

7. Developments of the Indore Process, Cont.
Grass-land Management

8. Developments of the Indore Process, Cont.
The Utilization of Town Wastes

Part III
Health, Indisposition, and Disease in Agriculture

9. Soil Aeration

The Soil Aeration Factor in Relation to Grass and Trees
The Root System of Deciduous Trees
The Root System of Evergreens

9. Soil Aeration (cont.)
The Harmful Effect of Grass
The Effect of Aeration Trenches on Young Trees Under Grass
The Cause of the Harmful Effect of Grass
Forest Trees and Grass
The Aeration Of The Sub-soil

10. Some Diseases of the Soil
Soil Erosion
The Formation of Alkali Land

11. The Retreat of the Crop and the Animal before the Parasite
Humus and Disease Resistance
The Mycorrhizal Association and Disease
The Investigations of Tomorrow

12. Soil Fertility and National Health

Part IV
Agricultural Research

13. A Criticism of Present-day Agricultural Research

14. A Successful Example of Agricultural Research

Part V
Conclusions and Suggestions

15. A Final Survey

A. Compost Manufacture on a Tea Estate in Bengal

B. Compost Making at Chipoli, Southern Rhodesia
C. The Manufacture of Humus from the Wastes of the Town and the Village

Next: Preface

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